Although both cause high blood sugar levels, there is a great difference between the two, such as the cause, the method of treatment, to the way it is handled.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes was once known as juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes. This type occurs only about 5-10% of all cases of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, there are abnormalities in the immune system, where the immune system actually attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. These cells are called beta cells.
Without insulin, the body’s cells can not absorb sugar (glucose), which the body needs as energy to perform its functions.
This type of diabetes is usually diagnosed when you are a child or young age, because this immune system disorder makes the patient suddenly ill and require medical treatment due to symptoms of diabetes that appears suddenly.
Type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is a type of diabetes that the majority (about 90-95%) occur in cases of diabetes, and can develop at any age. Generally type 2 diabetes occurs in adulthood. In type 2 diabetes, the body can not respond / use insulin properly. This condition is called insulin resistance.
Because of insulin resistance, blood sugar levels become high. To compensate for the high blood sugar, the body will produce more insulin. If the pancreas continues to work hard to produce insulin in large quantities, then the insulin-producing cells (beta cells) in the pancreas can be weakened / damaged. This causes the body of type 2 diabetics to slowly produce only very little insulin or even lose the ability to produce insulin. This condition is known as insulin deficiency.
Type 2 diabetes is more commonly caused by lifestyle factors. Because it is more common in adults, diabetes was once known as adult-onset diabetes.
Here are some basic things that distinguish type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes:
- Type 1 diabetes does not produce insulin
- Type 2 diabetes produces insulin, but the body does not use insulin properly (insulin resistance)
- Symptoms of type 1 diabetes appear suddenly, whereas type 2 diabetes develops slowly over many years.
- Type 1 diabetes requires routine insulin injections, whereas type 2 diabetes can be controlled by living a healthy lifestyle.
In the following table, you can see some differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Note, however, that the above points are general, and exceptions may occur under certain conditions.
What equates both?
What makes them both the same are the symptoms, caused by the high blood sugar levels. However, in type 1 diabetes the symptoms may arise suddenly. While the type 2 symptoms develop very slowly, and the sufferer is not aware of the conditions that are happening.
Common symptoms of diabetes include:
- Often feel thirsty
- Frequency of urination increased
- A blurred view suddenly
- Appetite increases, often hungry
- Dehydration and fatigue
- Sudden weight loss (type 1 diabetes)
In addition, these two types of diabetes make the sufferer at high risk of serious complications due to high blood sugar, among others:
- Heart disease and stroke
- Kidney damage, risk of kidney failure
- Nerve damage
- Eye damage (diabetic retinopathy)
- Long wounds healed, susceptible to severe infections, especially in the legs
A poorly maintained diabetes condition can lead to many serious complications.
What causes diabetes complications?
High blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels, nervous system, and also organs.
Complications from diabetes develop slowly. The longer a person has diabetes, the higher the risk of diabetes complications. Especially if diabetes is not controlled appropriately.
Various complications from diabetes can include:
Cardiovascular Disease. Diabetes makes a person at high risk of various cardiovascular problems, such as coronary heart disease, heart attack, stroke, to narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis).
Diabetics have a risk 5 times greater for heart attack and stroke.
Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar levels can damage the capillary blood vessels, which will inhibit the flow of nutrients from the blood, especially in the legs. Initially this will cause tingling, numbness, pain or burning, which usually starts from the tips of the fingers and spreads to other parts.
Damage to the nerves associated with the digestive system can cause nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea.
Kidney damage (nephropathy)
There are millions of small blood vessels in the kidney organ, which serve to filter out impurities from the blood. The condition of diabetes can damage this filtering system. Over time this condition can lead to problems such as kidney failure.
Eye damage (retinopathy). Also known as diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the retina of the eye, which is a risk of causing blindness, and various eye disorders such as cataracts and glaucoma.
The damaged nervous system of the leg can cause many complications of the foot. For example, long wounds healed, prone to infection and poor healing system. In severe cases, this condition may end in amputation.
In men, nerve and blood vessel damage is very risky cause erection problems. While in women, this condition can cause problems such as loss of libido, feel uncomfortable or sick during intercourse, dry genitals, and so forth.
Healthy Living Patterns for Diabetes Patients
If you are diagnosed with diabetes, then there is one thing you should monitor every time, ie blood sugar levels. Keeping blood sugar levels remain normal as suggested by a doctor can be a challenge, but it is not impossible to do.
You just have to get used to doing it. You also need to know what can cause blood sugar to rise or vice versa, down, and how to control it from day to day.
Here are some factors that can affect blood sugar levels:
Truly healthy eating is recommended for everyone, not just those who suffer from certain diseases only. But when you have diabetes, you should know what foods can affect your blood sugar levels, as well as how many servings you should eat. About this food you should learn to:
# Calculates the portion of carbohydrates consumed
Carbohydrates are one of the most powerful types of nutrients affecting blood sugar levels. Therefore, you need to learn what are the sources of carbohydrates, and how many servings that can be consumed from each source. You can write down the type of food that is most often consumed. Also use the scribe or scales to accurately calculate the portion.
# Balancing the diet
As much as possible plan every menu you want to eat, so you get all the nutrients your body needs. You can also rely on some sources of better carbohydrates than white rice such as fruit, vegetables, and whole grains (whole grains).
In addition to low carbohydrates, these foods also contain more fiber that can help blood sugar levels remain stable. To find out the best diet you need to consume, do not hesitate to consult with a doctor.
# Coordinate food and medication properly
Eating too little while on medication can cause blood sugar levels too low (hypoglycemic). Conversely, eating too much can also trigger hyperglycemia. To that end, coordinate the treatment that is lived and the intake of food consumed properly.
Consult your doctor about the pattern and the right foods for you.
# Avoid sweet drinks
Sweet drinks, including those containing fructose corn syrup or high sucrose, usually contain many calories, but are low in nutrients. And because this drink can boost sugar levels rise quickly, then you should avoid it.
New exceptions apply when blood sugar levels are at a low level. In this case, eating a sugary beverage can be an effective solution for raising sugar levels quickly.
Actively moving on a regular basis is one of the important things to do diabetics. Because by exercising, the muscles will utilize glucose as energy. Regular exercise makes the body use insulin effectively.
So when exercising, you should:
# Consult a doctor about what type of exercise is appropriate
In general, most adults are encouraged to exercise at least 30 minutes / day. However, if you have not exercised for a long time, then the doctor may need to check the overall health of the body before suggesting a particular type of exercise.
# Knowing when sporting time is best
In addition to the type of exercise, ask also the doctor when the best time to do it. You also need to find info about what should be the right blood sugar levels before starting the sport.
# Check blood sugar levels before, during, and after exercise
Do this especially when you are undergoing treatment to lower blood sugar levels. Exercise can lower blood sugar levels, especially if the exercise is still relatively new, or if you practice more intensively than usual.
Beware of symptoms that indicate that blood sugar is in a level that is too low such as trembling, weak, tired, hungry, dizzy, anxious, even confused. If you use insulin, and blood sugar levels are still below 100 mg / dL, or 5.6 mmol / L, then consume a little snack before practicing.
# Stay hydrated
Drink plenty of water while exercising because dehydration can also have an impact on blood sugar levels.
# Prepare everything you need carefully
Always be self-contained with healthy snacks or glucose tablets when you go to exercise (or wherever) just in case the sugar levels drop too low. For insulin users, you may need to reduce the dose before exercise, or wait for a while after exercise, previously injecting it.
Insulin and some other diabetes drugs are created to help lower blood sugar levels, especially when diet and exercise are no longer able to control it. But the effectiveness of this treatment depends also from time and dose.
What to do is:
# Keep insulin properly
Insulin that is not stored properly or has passed its expiration will not work effectively. Because insulin has a high sensitivity to temperature, then you need to be careful when saving it.
# Immediately consult a doctor
If the treatment of diabetes that led to blood sugar levels dropped too low or otherwise too high, then both the dose and consumption time needs to be reset.
# Be alert with new treatments
When doctors prescribe new drugs to treat other health problems such as high blood pressure or cholesterol for example, then ask if the drug will affect the blood sugar levels.
When sick, the body usually produces hormones that are closely related to stress. The goal is to help the body fight the disease. But this condition can also boost up blood sugar levels. Not only that, changes in appetite and normal activity can also make diabetes control more challenging when a person in a state of unhealthy.
What to do is:
Although nobody wants to be sick, but there’s nothing wrong just to keep watch. Consult a doctor what to do or consumption when you are sick. Also find out how often you should check your sugar and urine ketones, how to manage your own dose of medication, until when it’s time to go to the doctor.
# Keep consumption of diabetes drugs
However, if you do not have an appetite for nausea or vomiting, call your doctor immediately. In such situations, you may have to reset the insulin dose, or discontinue the temporary treatment because of the risk of hypoglycemia.
# Stay faithful to the set diet
If you still have an appetite, then eat as usual so that blood sugar levels are controlled. Eat easily digested foods such as jelly, crackers, soup, and more. Drink plenty of water to keep the body hydrated. If in the treatment of insulin, you may need to consume sugary drinks like juice to keep the sugar levels down.
When stressed, the body will produce certain hormones that can cause an increase in blood sugar levels. At this time it may be difficult for you to remain guided by a healthy lifestyle as usual. What to do at the moment is:
# Record stress levels
Estimate the level of stress (scale 1-10) that is felt every time you record blood sugar levels. Usually a pattern will soon be read from the existing comparison.
When you know that stress can affect blood sugar levels, then immediately overcome it. Learn to relieve stress in a healthy way (with sports for example), set limits on everyday activities, choose which ones should be a priority, and avoid stressors as much as possible.
# Search for help
Not everyone can solve their own problems, there are times when you may need help in this regard. If that’s what you need, then do not hesitate to look for it.
Thus are some of the factors to watch out for if you have diabetes. As long as you are guided by some of the above suggestions, and input from the doctor, then various disorders related to diabetes problems can be prevented.
With proper lifestyle planning, diabetics can still carry out daily activities more safely and productively, and reduce the risk of diabetes complications.